This research area highlights the ultimate physical nature of light and photonic technologies‒notably their high bandwidth, energy efficiency, multiplexing attributes, and interfacing ability to real-world environments‒for computing and intelligent functionalities. There are three principal approaches to this research area as follows.

Research A: System architecture to benefit from the ultimate nature of light
Resolve architectural limits that prevent the successful utilization of light in computing. The topic includes (A01) Photonic approximate computing and (A02) Optimal system design wherein optimal task decompositions are realized based on the characteristics of light- and electron-based computing platforms.

Research B: Computing mechanism to exploit the ultimate nature of light
Create novel computing mechanisms that utilize the ultimate physical limit of light. The topic includes (B01) Photonic reservoir computing, (B02) Computing based on light modulation, and (B03) Design of higher-order functionalities such as photonic decision making.

Research C: Device fundamentals to benefit from the ultimate nature of light
Novel substrates and devices to uncover the potential capability of light for computing. The topic includes (C01) Integrated photonic computing devices utilizing light multiplexing and (C02) Fusion of lightwave and ultrafast silicon electronics.

This research area seeks to intertwine various scientific disciplines, including optics, photonics, physics, informatics, and computer science, to establish an exciting emerging field of research represented by the title: Photonic computing highlighting ultimate nature of light.